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Effect of levothyroxine therapy on hypertension in hypothyroid patients

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Author(s): Amit Saxena | A K Kapoor | A R Tiwari | Sarita Bajaj | S Jaiswal

Journal: Internet Journal of Medical Update
ISSN 1694-0423

Volume: 7;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 13;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Hypertension | Hypothyroidism | Levothyroxine therapy

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to observe whether levothyroxine replacement therapy has an effect on hypertension in patients of hypothyroidism. This prospective study included all newly diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism (overt or subclinical) with hypertension, of either sex between 21-70 years of age. Levothyroxine replacement therapy was administered continuously during study period. Patients were clinically assessed for blood pressure before and every 3-4 monthly on levothyroxine therapy. Statistical analysis was carried out using a paired Student’s t-test. During one year study period, out of 180 newly diagnosed hypothyroid cases enrolled, 88 had overt hypothyroidism (OH) and 92 subclinical hypothyroidism (SH). Male: female ratio was 1: 6.5. Of these, hypertension was present in 51 (28.33%) patients (33 OH and 18 SH). Only diastolic blood pressure was raised in 28(54.9%) cases, systolic in 12 (23.53%) and both systolic and diastolic in 11 (21.57%) cases. Incidence of only diastolic hypertension was comparatively more in overt hypothyroidism (57.57%) than subclinical hypothyroidism (50%). Complete reversal of hypertension was observed in 8 out of 17 SH and 18 out of 29 OH cases while partial reversal was noted in one case in each category. A statistically significant decrease in mean values of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in patients of SH as well as OH. Hypertension is fairly common in patients of hypothyroidism. Replacement therapy with levothyroxine is quite helpful in reversing hypertension, a potential cardiovascular risk factor.

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