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Effect of Pollution on the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water and Sediments of River Galma, Zaria, Nigeria

Author(s): J.C. Nnaji | A. Uzairu | G.F.S. Harrison | M.L. Balarabe

Journal: Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences
ISSN 2041-0484

Volume: 3;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 314;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Downstream | physico-chemical | River Galma | sediments | upstream | water

The River Galma basin around Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, was studied in 2007, in order to determine whether pollution was responsible for the increasingly low fish catches from the river. This was done by comparing the physico-chemical parameters of water and sediments in the upstream area before the Zaria dam where human and industrial population is low with the downstream area after the dam where human population is high and industries are concentrated. Water and sediment samples were collected from twenty sampling points (ten points each in both upstream and downstream areas) and thirteen physico-chemical parameters of the River water were analyzed. Ten physico-chemical parameters of the sediments were also analysed. Results show that values for pH, total solids, total suspended solids, hardness, nitrate and phosphate were higher in the upstream area while values for dissolved oxygen, transparency and conductivity were higher in the downstream area. It was concluded that the physico-chemical parameters of the River water are favorable for fish production and so pollution may not responsible for low fish landings reported by fishermen. The River water is also a suitable source of water for the Zaria municipal water works. All parameters, except alkalinity and phosphate content, had higher mean values in upstream area sediments than in downstream area sediments and this may be due to the higher residence time of water in the upstream area because of the dam.
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