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The effect of the ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy on growth performance, blood metabolites and hormones of lactating sows

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Author(s): Xue Lingfeng | Piao Xiangshu | Li Defa | Li Pengfei | Zhang Rongfei | Kim Sung | Dong Bing

Journal: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
ISSN 1674-9782

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 11;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Blood metabolites | Hormones | Lactating sows | Metabolizable energy | Performance | Standardized ileal digestible lysine

ABSTRACT
Abstract A total of 335 lactating sows (Landrace × Large White) were used in two experiments to determine the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys) to metabolizable energy (ME) for mixed parity sows during lactation. In Exp. 1, 185 sows (weighing an average of 256.2 ± 6.5 kg and having an average parity of 3.4 ± 0.3) were allocated to one of six experimental diets in a completely randomized block design within parity groups (1, 2, and 3+). The experimental diets were formulated to contain 3.06, 3.16, 3.20, 3.25, 3.30 or 3.40 Mcal/kg of ME and each diet was fed to the sows throughout a 28 day lactation. All diets provided a similar SID-lysine level (0.86%). As a result, the diets provided a SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.81, 2.72, 2.69, 2.65, 2.61 or 2.53 g/Mcal ME. Sow feed intake was significantly (P < 0.01) affected by the energy content of the diet as well as by sow parity. Using regression analysis, feed intake was shown to be maximized at 3.25, 3.21, 3.21 and 3.21 Mcal/kg of ME for parity 1, 2, 3+ sows and the entire cohort of sows respectively (quadratic; P < 0.01). In addition, the result of feed intake can be expressed as 2.65, 2.69, 2.69 and 2.68 g/Mcal based on analysis of SID-Lys:ME ratio. Litter weight gain was affected by dietary treatment for parity 3+ sows and the entire cohort (P < 0.01). Based on regression analysis, litter weight gain was maximized at 3.25 and 3.24 Mcal/kg of ME for parity 3+ (quadratic; P < 0.01) and the entire cohort (quadratic; P < 0.01). Similarly, the result of litter weight gain could be expressed as 2.65 and 2.66 g/Mcal of SID-Lys:ME ratio. Therefore, 3.25 Mcal/kg of ME was selected for Exp. 2 in which 150 sows (weighing 254.6 ± 7.3 kg and having an average parity of 3.4 ± 0.4) were allocated to one of five treatments in a completely randomized block design within parity (1, 2, and 3+). The experimental diets were formulated to contain 2.1, 2.4, 2.7, 3.0 or 3.3 g/Mcal of SID-Lys:ME ratio with all diets providing 3.25 Mcal/kg of ME. The diets were fed to the sows throughout a 28 day lactation. Sow body weight loss was affected by dietary treatment (parity 3+ sows, P = 0.02; entire cohort, P < 0.01) and by sow parity (P < 0.01). Litter weight at weaning and litter weight gain were affected by dietary treatment for parity 1, 2, 3+ sows and the entire cohort (P < 0.01) as well as by sow parity (P < 0.01). Plasma urea nitrogen (P < 0.01), creatinine (P < 0.01) and non-esterifide fatty acids (P = 0.04) were decreased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio of the diet increased. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (P = 0.02), estradiol (P < 0.01) and luteinizing hormone (P = 0.02) were increased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio in diet increased. Based on a broken-line model, the estimated SID-Lys:ME ratio to maximize litter weight gain was estimated to be 3.05 g/Mcal.
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