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Effect of Stress on Viral–Bacterial Synergy in Bovine Respiratory Disease: Novel Mechanisms to Regulate Inflammation

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Author(s): P. D. Hodgson | P. Aich | A. Manuja | K. Hokamp | F. M. Roche | F. S. L. Brinkman | A. Potter | L. A. Babiuk | P. J. Griebel

Journal: Comparative and functional genomics.
ISSN 1531-6912

Volume: 6;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 244;
Date: 2006;
Original page

ABSTRACT
The severity of bovine respiratory infections has been linked to a variety of factors, including environmental and nutritional changes, transportation, and social reorganization of weaned calves. Fatal respiratory infections, however, usually occur when a primary viral infection compromises host defences and enhances the severity of a secondary bacterial infection. This viral–bacterial synergy can occur by a number of different mechanisms and disease challenge models have been developed to analyse host responses during these respiratory infections. A primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection followed by a secondary challenge with Mannheimia haemolytica results in fatal bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and host responses to these two pathogens have been studied extensively. We used this disease model to demonstrate that stress significantly altered the viral–bacterial synergy resulting in fatal BRD. Functional genomic analysis revealed that BHV-1 infection enhanced toll-like receptors (TLR) expression and increased pro-inflammatory responses which contribute to the severity of a Mannheimia haemolytica infection. TLRs play a critical role in detecting bacterial infections and inducing pro-inflammatory responses. It is difficult to understand, however, how stress-induced corticosteroids could enhance this form of viral–bacterial synergy. Nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor activates cell signalling pathways which inhibit both TLR signalling and pro-inflammatory responses. The apparent conundrum between stress-induced corticosteroids and enhanced BRD susceptibility is discussed in terms of present data and previous investigations of stress and respiratory disease.

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