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Effects of Feedback on Self-Efficacy Expectations Based on the Athlete’s Optimistic Profile

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Author(s): Ricardo de la Vega | Roberto Ruiz | Francisco Batista | Francisco Ortín | Carlos Giesenow

Journal: Psychology
ISSN 2152-7180

Volume: 03;
Issue: 12;
Start page: 1208;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Positive Psychology | Optimism | Self-Efficacy | Feedback | Sport

ABSTRACT
In recent years, the study of optimism and its possible influence on athletic performance has increased considerably. The key purposes of this study can be summarized as: 1) analyze how self-efficacy expectations vary depending on the level of optimism an individual has; 2) ascertain how progressively receiving negative feedback affects performance expectations; and 3) evaluate whether there are differences in per- formance depending on the presence or absence of feedback. In order to achieve this, 53 Spanish football players were assessed using the Revised Life Orientation Test and an objective test of strength using hand dynamometry. The level of feedback provided was manipulated to study its influence on perceived self- efficacy in the applied strength task. The results show no significant difference between the three levels of optimism/pessimism respecting self-efficacy. Significant differences do appear when the effects of the in- dividual feedback provided for each experimental group is analyzed. The findings are discussed and future research is proposed based on the results obtained.
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