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Emodin regulating excision repair cross-complementation group 1 through fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signaling

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Author(s): Gang Chen | Hong Qiu | Shan-Dong Ke | Shao-Ming Hu | Shi-Ying Yu | Sheng-Quan Zou

Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology
ISSN 1007-9327

Volume: 19;
Issue: 16;
Start page: 2481;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma | Emodin | Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 | Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 | Platinum resistance | Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

ABSTRACT
AIM: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the reversal effect of emodin on platinum resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: After the addition of 10 μmol/L emodin to HepG2/oxaliplatin (OXA) cells, the inhibition rate (IR), 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and reversal index (IC50 in experimental group/IC50 in control group) were calculated. For HepG2, HepG2/OXA, HepG2/OXA/T, each cell line was divided into a control group, OXA group, OXA + fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) group and OXA + emodin group, and the final concentrations of FGF7, emodin and OXA in each group were 5 ng/mL, 10 μg/mL and 10 μmol/L, respectively. Single-cell gel electrophoresis was conducted to detect DNA damage, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1) protein expression levels in each group were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with the IC50 of 120.78 μmol/L in HepG2/OXA cells, the IC50 decreased to 39.65 μmol/L after treatment with 10 μmol/L emodin; thus, the reversal index was 3.05. Compared with the control group, the tail length and Olive tail length in the OXA group, OXA + FGF7 group and OXA + emodin group were significantly increased, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The tail length and Olive tail length were lower in the OXA + FGF7 group than in the OXA group, and this difference was also statistically significant. Compared with the OXA + FGF7 group, the tail extent, the Olive tail moment and the percentage of tail DNA were significantly increased in the OXA + emodin group, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In comparison with its parental cell line HepG2, the HepG2/OXA cells demonstrated significantly increased FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 expression levels, whereas the expression of all three molecules was significantly inhibited in HepG2/OXA/T cells, in which FGFR2 was silenced by FGFR2 shRNA. In the examined HepG2 cells, the FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 expression levels demonstrated increasing trends in the OXA group and OXA + FGF7 group. Compared with the OXA group and OXA + FGF7 group, the FGFR2, p-ERK1/2, and ERCC1 expression levels were significantly lower in the OXA + emodin group, and these differences were statistically significant. In the HepG2/OXA/T cell line that was transfected with FGFR2 shRNA, the FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 expression levels were significantly inhibited, but there were no significant differences in these expression levels among the OXA, OXA + FGF7 and OXA + emodin groups. CONCLUSION: Emodin markedly reversed OXA resistance by enhancing OXA DNA damage in HepG2/OXA cells, and the molecular mechanism was related to the inhibitory effect on ERCC1 expression being mediated by the FGFR2/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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