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Environmental Issues in Erbil City

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Author(s): Hamed M. Jassim#1 , Yousif Abdulla Aziz Kurdi *2 , Fakhri H. Ibraheem Al-nidai

Journal: International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology
ISSN 2231-5381

Volume: 4;
Issue: 8;
Start page: 3516;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Toxic gases | Water supply | Land preservation | Noise pollution und Air pollution | Pollutants | Environmental issues | Emission.

ABSTRACT
Erbil city is facing environmental problems such as Wastewater treatment, Water supply, Land preservation, Air pollution, Noise pollution, Pollution due to the huge increase of the numbers of vehicles, as well as the big increase of public generators which work in every edge of the city.Political instability and tension between the Iraqi federal and regional governments due to power sharing and application of the constitution are major contributors to the delay in solving these environmental problems.This research will deal with these environmental issues. Although these problems are causing serious health concerns for the inhabitants, they can sometimes, in the worst scenarios, lead to death, due to the lack of interest of the authorities to solve these kind of issues. The research sheds light on some of the causes and effects of the environmental problems and also draws conclusions and makes suggestions for reducing their impact on the environment.Extensive statistics and studies were performed to outline the environmental effects of the following sources of pollution with emphasis on dealing with the issue qualitatively and quantitatively.I- Pollution due to increasing numbers of vehicles in Erbil city, indicating an increase in the volume of traffic by an amount of 10.87 times over a period of 6 years between (2006 - 2011). This has resulted in the emission of huge quantities of CO2 in comparison to the other pollutants, whereby the total daily emission of CO2 reached a staggering figure of 2813 tons in 2011. Our research has also indicated an increase in the amounts of other pollutants by the following multifold rates: 10.0 times for CO, whereby the total daily amount reached 163.68 tons in 2011. 10.1 times for HC, whereby the total daily amount reached 19.38 tons in 2011. 10.4 times for NOx, whereby the total daily amount reached 12.94 tons in 2011. 11.8 times for mass particulates, whereby the total daily amount reached 1.311 tons in 2011.d 11.0 times for CO2 , whereby the total daily amount reached 2813 tons in 2011.II- Pollution due to increasing numbers of power generators in Erbil, indicating an increase in the number of used generators by 76.1 % over a period of 10 years between (2003 - 2012), whereby the number of used generators climbed from 1458 in 2003 to 2568 in 2012. This was accompanied by an increase in the amounts of emitted pollutants as in the following percentages: 76.3 % for CO2, whereby the total annual amount reached 1024 tons in 2012. 75.7 % for NOx, whereby the total annual amount reached 181 tons in 2012. 78.4 % for SO2, whereby the total annual amount reached 91 tons in 2012.Some conclusions were drawn and adequate recommendations were made.
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