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Erkek Maratoncularda Sosyal Çevre ve Ekonomik Durumun Spora Yönelmeye Etkisi

Author(s): Mehibe AKANDERE | Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ | Zekeriya AKDOĞAN

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 22;
Start page: 459;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: Male marathon | social environment | economical state | towards sports

Man isn’t only a physical and physiological being but also an entity having psychological, sociologic and cultural features.Therefore, the situation in which the athlete takes place mentally and emotionally in sports environment is directly related to theirtowards sports. In our day, individuals, groups, societies watch the athletes, imitate them and see them as a symbol representingthemselves in the contest they watch. Today, developed countries prefer play-fields rather than battle-fields to prove theirsuperiority. Therefore all factors that effect athletes towards sport are evaluated and a positive improvement is provided. Also,sports’ turning into a huge sector to several billion dollars increased the importance of sports, accordingly clubs and countriesmuch more.Here, the base of the athlete’s success in this situation is founded on his doing sports in the healthiest and the highestperformance. Because of all these reasons, the limits of bodily abilities, performance and scientific knowledge providing thisperformance are pushed in the last century.It is known that there are many physical, psychological, social, economical and cultural mechanisms that are effective onathlete’s performance. Therefore, to take into account all components, all determining and effecting factors of the performancealso requires to do the necessary. Man isn’t only a physical and physiological being but also an entity having psychological,sociological and cultural features. Therefore, social environment and economical situation affect the athlete’s success in sportsenvironment.The “social environment” term has become to be used in a great variety of areas ranging from politics to science by enteringour daily lives. Social environment is consisted of family, immediate surroundings, school-work environment and society masscommunication and affected by these components. It is a fact that there is a relation between social development and economysince economical development creates social needs and economical development can’t happen without social development.This study has been carried out in order to find out whether there are any effects of the social environment and economicalstate of the male marathon racers on their performances or not.The focal point of the research is formed on the male marathon racers in Turkey at the elite levels. The study-group of thisresearch is consisted of 40 male marathoners doing sports at an elite level in Turkey. General review model being one of thedescriptive research methods was used in this study. In order to determine the effect of male marathoners’ social environmentand economic conditions of their performances in the research, A questionnaire having reliability and validity in doctoral thesisabout “ Elite Athletes’ relationship with social environment and The effect of social environment on tending towards thesports”(Kılcıgil(1998) ) was applied to the male marathoners. In the research, frequency, percentage, weighted average X2technique were used as statistical techniques and its significance was tested at 0.05 level The sportsmen involved in the research are seen to be affected from the social environment during the inclination, start andmaintaining period of the sport. The family is the first of all. And then close environment, school/work environment and massmedia comes afterwards.Most of the subjects are the university graduates. As for the occupational status, most are the civil servant sportsmen. Most ofthe subjects are of the middle-class as for their incomes. There is a significant relation between the economical state anddifference of incomes with income level. Especially, the sportsmen who are in the lower-income group are determined not toplace in a competition. However, the ones who are not dealing any occupation but their occupations are only being a sportsmenare found to be more successful at the international competitions. As the result of this, the fact that the economical state of thesportsmen faced one important factor affecting their performances is more significant to us.In this study where the effect of social environment and economic conditions of the male marathon runners over theirperformance is researched , the variables that direct the subjects towards sports have been found to be respectively schoolenvironment (3,82),settlement (3,45), social circle (3,27),family(2,20).(Table 1) It has been found that the most effectiveenvironment that direct the subjects towards sports is school environment and teaching physical education being the mosteffective component of this environment has a strong influence. It is seen that it is the teaching physical education that mostlydirect the students towards sports.(table 2) It is seen that subjects have been directed to the sports by physical education teacherto a large extent .It is thought that physical education teacher is effective as a model on students in school environment indicatedas the most effective social environment in child’s tending towards the sports.We may say that physical education teacher influences the students as being a model in school environment that is determinedto be the most effective social environment in child’s inclining to sports. The success of school sports teams in schoolenvironment and the value given to the players in school have highly directed the subjects towards the sports.(table 3).Ameaningful relation has been found between the subjects’ inclining to sports and providing financial income ,getting regularincome and it has been determined that they play sports to provide financial income.(table 4) One of the reasons why the choiceof ensuring financial gain is high among the athletes may their worry of losing the good life conditions when they areunsuccessful at sports, such as education, health, nutrition, accommodation that they get when they do sports for long years,become professional and become successful at sports.The subjects’ playing sports for long years, being professional and their worry about losing ,when they are unsuccessful atsports, the good life conditions such as education, health, diet, sheltering that they get when they are successful at sports may beof reasons why getting financial income factor is highly popular for players. There is a meaningful relation between subjects’income levels and the ranks that they get in international competitions and it is observed that the individuals especially having lowincome levels can’t place in international competitions(table 5). A meaningful relation has been found between the socialenvironment, settlement, parents’ educational background, job, career and the player’s performance.(table 6)As a conclusion; there is a significant relation between the economical state and difference of incomes with income level.Especially, the sportsmen who are in the lower-income group are determined not to place in a competition. However, the oneswho are not dealing any occupation but their occupations are only being a sportsmen are found to be more successful at theinternational competitions. As the result of this, the fact that the economical state of the sportsmen faced one important factoraffecting their towards sports is more significant to us. It may be suggested that sports should be made common in society andmore financial support should be given to elite players as well apart from main sports such as football, basketball, volleyball, eliteplayers should be shown as models and introduced in directing children and young’s towards athletics branch
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