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¿Es la ocratoxina a una micotoxina mutagénica?

Author(s): A. López de Cerain | L. Arbillaga | O. Ezpeleta

Journal: Revista de Toxicología
ISSN 0212-7113

Volume: 21;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2004;
Original page

Keywords: ochratoxin A | genotoxicity | mutagenicity | adducts | mycotoxins

Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin that is produced by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium which when found in food, can then be passed into humans. Its major target is the kidney but it is also hepatotoxic, immunotoxic and teratogenic. It has been classified as being a possible human carcinogenic agent (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) but it is not known if the mode of action occurs through genetic or epigenetic events. In this article, the genotoxicity and mutagenicity data of this mycotoxin are reviewed. Although the first studies using bacterial mutagenicity tests were negative, it was soon demonstrated that in vivo, ochratoxin A induced adduct formation, particularly in renal tissue and urinary bladder of mice. It is also known that this mycotoxin produces DNA single- strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges and also induces synthesis of DNA out of the S period, an indicative event of repair processes. It is considered that the genotoxic activity is dependent on metabolic activation, particularly of some P450 isoforms, although the genotoxic metabolites have not been isolated. The last studies performed with tritiated ochratoxin A under many experimental conditions indicate that the principal metabolite is the 4-(R) ¿ hydroxi ¿ ochratoxin A; neither ochratoxin A nor this metabolite binds covalently to DNA, so its genotoxic activity would be more related with ochratoxin A-mediated citotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, processes which can originate reactive species with nucleic acids

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