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Estrogen, male dominance and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Is there a link?

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Author(s): Huiqi Yang | Olga A Sukocheva | Damian J Hussey | David I Watson

Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology
ISSN 1007-9327

Volume: 18;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 393;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Estrogen | Estrogen receptors | Male dominance | Esophageal adenocarcinoma

ABSTRACT
Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with poor prognosis, and its incidence has risen sharply over recent decades. Obesity is a major risk factor for developing this cancer and there is a clear male gender bias in the incidence that cannot be fully explained by known risk factors. It is possible that a difference in the expression of estrogen, or its signaling axes, may contribute to this gender bias. We undertook a comprehensive literature search and analyzed the available data regarding estrogen and estrogen receptor expression, and the possible sex-specific links with esophageal adenocarcinoma development. Potentially relevant associations between visceral vs subcutaneous fat deposition and estrogen expression, and the effect of crosstalk between estrogen and leptin signaling were identified. We also found limited studies suggesting a role for estrogen receptor β expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma development. The current literature supports speculation on an etiological role for estrogen in the male gender bias in esophageal adenocarcinoma, but further studies are required.
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