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Ethnomedicinal and Phytochemical Profile of Some Savanna Plant Species in Nigeria

Author(s): S.P. Bako | M.J. Bakfur | I. John | E.I. Bala

Journal: International Journal of Botany
ISSN 1811-9700

Volume: 1;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 147;
Date: 2005;
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Keywords: Phytochemistry | Nigeria | medicinal plants

A study was conducted to evaluate the usage in trado-medicine and phytochemical profiles of some plants of common occurrence in the Savanna eco-region of Nigeria. The plant species evaluated, included three members from legumes and Liliaceae and one each of the Annonaceae, Burseraceae and Solanaceae. Their acclaimed uses in traditional medicine are as varied as their taxonomic distribution. Phytochemical analyses in acetone revealed that Entada africana, Dichrostachys glomerata, Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielli had the highest diversity of phytochemicals (4 classes each), followed by Piliostigma thonningii, which had three classes and then Datura metel, Asparagus africana and Urginea ultissima which had two classes. Aloe barterri had only one class. In petroleum ether Annona senegalensis had the highest diversity of phytochemicals (4 classes) followed by Datura metel, Entada africana, Piliostigma thonningii and Boswellia dalzielli, which had three each. Each of Asparagus africana and Urginea ultissima had one class. Aloe barterii did not yield any phytochemical. The saponins had the highest frequency of occurrence (100%) followed by alkaloids (66.7%), tannins (57.1%), flavonoids (55.6%), then anthraquinones, sapogenins and terpenes (33.3% each). In petroleum ether, saponins also had the highest frequency of occurrence (88.9%) followed by sapogenins and terpenes (44.4%), tannins and flavonoids (33.3% each), anthraquinones (28.6%) and then alkaloids (0.0%).
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