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Etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of maxillofacial injuries in a Tanzanian teaching hospital

Author(s): Chalya Phillipo | Mchembe Mabula | Mabula Joseph | Kanumba Emanuel | Gilyoma Japhet

Journal: Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
ISSN 1752-2897

Volume: 5;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 7;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Maxillofacial injuries | etiology | injury characteristics | treatment outcome | Tanzania

Abstract Background Maxillofacial injuries pose a therapeutic challenges to trauma, maxillofacial and plastic surgeons practicing in developing countries. This study was carried out to determine the etiology, injury characteristics and management outcome of maxillofacial injuries at our teaching hospital. Patients and Methods A prospective hospital based study of maxillofacial injury patients was carried out at Bugando Medical Centre from November 2008 to October 2009. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPPS computer software version 11.5. Results A total of 154 patients were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.7:1. Their mean age was 28.32 ± 16.48 years and the modal age group was 21-30 years. Most injuries were caused by road traffic crushes (57.1%), followed by assault and falls in 16.2% and 14.3% respectively. Soft tissue injuries and mandibular fractures were the most common type of injuries. Head/neck (53.1%) and limb injuries (28.1%) were the most prevalent associated injuries. Surgical debridement (95.1%) was the most common surgical procedures. Closed reduction of maxillofacial fractures was employed in 81.5% of patients. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed in 6.8% of cases. Complications occurred in 24% of patients, mainly due to infection and malocclusion. The mean duration of hospital stay was 18.12 ± 12.24 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Conclusion Road traffic crashes remain the major etiological factor of maxillofacial injuries in our setting. Measures on prevention of road traffic crashes should be strongly emphasized in order to reduce the occurrence of these injuries.
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