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EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE STEM BARK AND LEAVES EXTRACTS OF HUNTERIA UMBELLATA K. SCHUM, APOCYNACEAE

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Author(s): Josephs | Godwin Chimechefulam | Ching | Fidelis Poh | Fidelia Osimen

Journal: International Research Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2230-8407

Volume: 2;
Issue: 9;
Start page: 85;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Hunteria Umbellata | stem bark | leaves | pathogenic bacteria isolates | antibacterial activity

ABSTRACT
Hunteria umbellata K. Schum, family Apocynaceae is used in traditional medicine in Southern Nigeria to treat various ailments using its various parts. Amongst its ethnomedicinal uses is its use in the treatment of microbial infections. This study focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanol extracts of its stem bark and leaves and preliminary phytochemical screening of the constituents of its stem bark and leaves using standard methods. In-vitro microbiological technique was employed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was evaluated using nutrient agar final concentrations of 15, 20, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150mg/ml. Ciprofloxacin was used as the reference drug for comparison using final nutrient agar concentrations of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5µg/ml. The stem bark extract inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at the concentrations of 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/ml, with 50mg/ml as the minimum inhibitory concentration. While the leaves extract had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 150mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Ciprofloxacin inhibited the growth of both bacteria at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5µg/ml, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5µg/ml. In conclusion, the results indicate that the methanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Hunteria umbellata possess antibacterial activity against gram – positive and gram – negative bacterial isolates. This activity may be attributed to the reported phytochemical constituents in the plant with known antibacterial actions. This authenticates its ethnomedicine use in the treatment of bacterial infections.
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