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Evaluation of the toxicity of Streptomyces aburaviensis (R9) extract towards various agricultural pests

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Author(s): Ismail Saadoun | Sereen Bataineh | Qutaiba Ababneh | Khalid Hameed | Kevin Schrader | Charles Cantrell | Franck Dayan | David Wedge

Journal: Agricultural Sciences
ISSN 2156-8553

Volume: 02;
Issue: 04;
Start page: 491;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Algae | Catfish | Cyanobacteria | Fungi | Pathogens | Streptomyces

ABSTRACT
The dichloromethane extract of culture filtrate from Streptomyces aburaviensis R9 was evaluated using various rapid bioassays to determine potential inhibitory effects towards phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeosoprioids, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis viticola and P. obscurans), fish bacterial pathogens (Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare), a green alga (Selenastrum capricornutum), plant seeds [Bent grass (Agrostis sp.) monocot and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) dicot] and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB)-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix perornata and Pseudanabaena sp.). The dichloromethane extract showed selective inhibition against the cyanobacterium P. perornata, with a lowest-complete-inhibition concentration (LCIC) of 10 mg/L and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of 10 mg/L while LCIC and LOEC values were 100 mg/L when tested against S. capricornutum. This extract also showed slight meristematic cytogenic necrosis at 200 mg/L towards germinated seeds of both test plants. The compounds were not very toxic towards the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogenic bacteria E. ictaluri and F. columnare. Preliminary evaluation of the extract toward C. acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosoprioids using TLC bioautography revealed moderate activity. However, further evaluation of the extract using a microtiter plate bioassay determined that inhibition was strongest against C. acutatum and C. fragariae, though this inhibitory activity diminished at 72 hours and was moderately less active than the commercial fungicides azoxystrobin and captan when comparing 1 - 100 mg/L levels at 48 hours.
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