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Exploring the potentials and limitations of the time-reversal imaging of finite seismic sources

Author(s): S. Kremers | A. Fichtner | G. B. Brietzke | H. Igel | C. Larmat | L. Huang | M. Käser

Journal: Solid Earth
ISSN 1869-9510

Volume: 2;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 95;
Date: 2011;
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The characterisation of seismic sources with time-reversed wave fields is developing into a standard technique that has already been successful in numerous applications. While the time-reversal imaging of effective point sources is now well-understood, little work has been done to extend this technique to the study of finite rupture processes. This is despite the pronounced non-uniqueness in classic finite source inversions. The need to better constrain the details of finite rupture processes motivates the series of synthetic and real-data time reversal experiments described in this paper. We address questions concerning the quality of focussing in the source area, the localisation of the fault plane, the estimation of the slip distribution and the source complexity up to which time-reversal imaging can be applied successfully. The frequency band for the synthetic experiments is chosen such that it is comparable to the band usually employed for finite source inversion. Contrary to our expectations, we find that time-reversal imaging is useful only for effective point sources, where it yields good estimates of both the source location and the origin time. In the case of finite sources, however, the time-reversed field does not provide meaningful characterisations of the fault location and the rupture process. This result cannot be improved sufficiently with the help of different imaging fields, realistic modifications of the receiver geometry or weights applied to the time-reversed sources. The reasons for this failure are manifold. They include the choice of the frequency band, the incomplete recording of wave field information at the surface, the excitation of large-amplitude surface waves that deteriorate the depth resolution, the absence of a sink that should absorb energy radiated during the later stages of the rupture process, the invisibility of small slip and the neglect of prior information concerning the fault geometry and the inherent smoothness of seismologically inferred Earth models that prevents the beneficial occurrence of strong multiple-scattering. The condensed conclusion of our study is that the limitations of time-reversal imaging – at least in the frequency band considered here – start where the seismic source stops being effectively point-localised.
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