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Exposure to anti-malarial drugs and monitoring of adverse drug reactions using toll-free mobile phone calls in private retail sector in Sagamu, Nigeria: implications for pharmacovigilance

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Author(s): Adedeji Ahmed | Sanusi Bilqees | Tella Azeez | Akinsanya Motunrayo | Ojo Olubusola | Akinwunmi Mufliat | Tikare Olubukola | Ogunwande Isiaka | Ogundahunsi Omobola | Ayilara Olajide | Ademola Taofeeqah | Fehintola Fatai | Ogundahunsi Olumide

Journal: Malaria Journal
ISSN 1475-2875

Volume: 10;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 230;
Date: 2011;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contribute to ill-health or life-threatening outcomes of therapy during management of infectious diseases. The exposure to anti-malarial and use of mobile phone technology to report ADRs following drug exposures were investigated in Sagamu - a peri-urban community in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Purchase of medicines was actively monitored for 28 days in three Community Pharmacies (CP) and four Patent and Proprietary Medicine Stores (PPMS) in the community. Information on experience of ADRs was obtained by telephone from 100 volunteers who purchased anti-malarials during the 28-day period. Results and Discussion A total of 12,093 purchases were recorded during the period. Antibiotics, analgesics, vitamins and anti-malarials were the most frequently purchased medicines. A total of 1,500 complete courses of anti-malarials were purchased (12.4% of total purchases); of this number, purchases of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) were highest (39.3 and 25.2% respectiuvely). Other anti-malarials purchased were artesunate monotherapy (AS) - 16.1%, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) 10.0%, amodiaquine (AQ) - 6.6%, quinine (QNN) - 1.9%, halofantrine (HF) - 0.2% and proguanil (PR) - 0.2%. CQ was the cheapest (USD 0.3) and halofantrine the most expensive (USD 7.7). AL was 15.6 times ($4.68) more expensive than CQ. The response to mobile phone monitoring of ADRs was 57% in the first 24 hours (day 1) after purchase and decreased to 33% by day 4. Participants in this monitoring exercise were mostly with low level of education (54%). Conclusion The findings from this study indicate that ineffective anti-malaria medicines including monotherapies remain widely available and are frequently purchased in the study area. Cost may be a factor in the continued use of ineffective monotherapies. Availability of a toll-free telephone line may facilitate pharmacovigilance and follow up of response to medicines in a resource-poor setting.
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