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Factors Contributing to Illicit Substance Dependence among Treatment Seeking Addicts in Tabriz

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Author(s): S. M. A. Ghoreishizadeh | K. Torabi

Journal: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology
ISSN 1735-4315

Volume: 8;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 21;
Date: 2002;
Original page

Keywords: dependence | opium | abuse | addict | withdrawal

ABSTRACT
AbstractObjectives:This study examined the leading factors causing drug abuse initiation and further continuation and relapse of illicit drug use by treatment seeking addicts in Tabriz Self-Referred Welfare Center. Method: Among those referring to the Center, 200 male addicts were randomly selected as the subjects of the study. The necessary information was collected through semi-structured psychiatric clinical interviews and a questionnaire on epidemiology as well as etiology of substance dependence. Findings: The findings demonstrated that the highest number of subjects (46%) fell in the 25 to 34-age range group 65% possessed education below high school diploma and 78% were married. The most common substance used was opium (80%). As for the causation of substance abuse, the most common responses were in the following categories: peer pressure and interaction with unsuitable cohorts (28%), Enjoyment and recreational use (26%), Physical discomfort and pain relief (19%), Psychological pressures and life stressors (13%). The factors contributing to the maintenance and continuation of drug abuse were found in the categories of Feelings of dependence (20%), Inability to tolerate withdrawal symptoms (28%), Euphoric effects (15.5%), Elimination of anxiety and stress (12.5%), Self confidence (11%), Concentration, thinking and working capacity (13%). The factors leading to relapse after some periods of abstinence included Mental stress ensuing from withdrawal (45%), Banishment by the family (10%), Peer pressure (22%), Feeling of loneliness and social ostracism (8.5%), Unemployment (6%), and Depression (8.5%). Results: This study demonstrated that various biological, psychological, and social factors contribute to different levels of illicit substance dependence.  

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