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False negative HIV antibody test in HIV infected children who receive early antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting

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Author(s): Gerardo Alvarez-Uria | Praveen K. Naik | Manoranjan Midde | Shanmugamari Kannan | Raghuprakash Reddy

Journal: Infectious Disease Reports
ISSN 2036-7430

Volume: 4;
Issue: 1;
Start page: e6;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: HIV | Pediatrics | Diagnosis | Serology.

ABSTRACT
With the implementation of 2010 World Health Organization guidelines, the number of infants from developing countries who will initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase considerably. In this study we describe the HIV antibody tests of 14 HIV infected children who initiated ART at age less than one year in a rural setting of India. The HIV rapid test was negative in seven and indeterminate in two cases, whereas the HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody test was negative in three and indeterminate in one case. In one child who had both negative HIV rapid test and ELISA initially, HIV serology turned positive after having a virological failure to ART, suggesting the possibility of utilizing HIV serology for monitoring ART effectiveness in children who experience HIV seroreversion. In conclusion, HIV seroreversion of children with early initiation of ART is common and should be considered for avoiding misdiagnosis of HIV infection. 
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