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Fascinating diversity and Potent biological activities of Actinomycete metabolites

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Author(s): T.R. Prashith Kekuda 1*, K.S. Shobha 2, R. Onkarappa 2

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN 0974-6943

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 250;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Actinomycetes | Biological activities | Secondary metabolites | Antibiotics | Marine actinomycetes | Streptomyces

ABSTRACT
Microbial diversity constitutes an infinite pool of novel chemistry, making up a valuable source for innovative biotechnology. There are over 23,000 known microbial secondary metabolites, 42 % of which are produced by actinobacteria, 42 % by fungi, and 16 % by other bacteria. Actinomycetes are one of the most important groups of secondary metabolite producers. Among various genera, Streptomyces, Saccharopolyspora, Amycolatopsis, Micromonospora and Actinoplanes are the major producers of commercially important biomolecules. The streptomycetes are very potent producers of secondary metabolites. Out of the approximately 10,000 known antibiotics, 45-55 % are produced by streptomycetes. The secondary metabolites produced by actinomycetes have a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, immunosuppressive, antitumor, insecticidal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, diabetogenic and others. Existence of actinomycetes has been reported in the marine habitats. Marine actinomycetes are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities. Bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs. Additional actinomycetes- produced antibiotics could be discovered by subjecting terrestrial and marine samples to innovative enrichments and screening methods. Sequencing actinomycetes genomes may provide insights useful in devising novel agents. This review article highlights the potential activities of actinomycetes.
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