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Features at Valu lui Traian Research Station, Romania

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Author(s): Elena Topor | Vasile Cociu | Ramona Vasilescu

Journal: Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti, Romania
ISSN 1584-2231

Volume: XXIV;
Start page: 34;
Date: 2008;
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Keywords: apricot cultivars: Traian | Tudor | Auras | Danubiu | Cristal | Fortuna | Amiral | Augustin

ABSTRACT
Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta is located in the south-eastern part of Romania on the territory among the Black Sea and Danube River. This land offers the best climate and soil conditions for apricot culture. Therefore, many researches regarding the organization of the germplasm fund and many works for apricot breeding for different traits and features were developed here. The organizing of germplasm fund began since 1971 year with 225 apricot cultivars and a hybrids field with 1300 trees obtained from an apricot breeding program initiated by scientist Vasile Cociu, with the collaboration of Rutgers University through professor F.L. Hough. They were planted outside of the Research Station, just near Black Sea coast.Beginning with 1982, the whole genetic fund of apricot has been established and developed in the frame of the Valu lui Traian Research Station area, where the apricot breeding program has been continued till now. For a long period, the number of apricot cultivars and selections increased to catch up with over 630. All of them have been studied and many used as genitors for different traits and features. The main objectives of the breeding program were: to prolong the harvest season, to increase fruit quality regarding the size and to obtain fruits with a high sugar content, flesh firmness, good aroma, skin and flesh color, good taste, as well as to improve the resistance to diseases such as Sharka or plum-pox virus, and to increase yields. To pursue these objectives, we employed standard breeding techniques of cross pollination, self pollination and open pollination. More than 150 cross combinations were made and more than 10000 seeds were obtained from cross combinations and another 10000 from self and open pollination. More than 18000 hybrids were subjected to evaluation in a hybrid orchard. Over 380 of the best phenotypes, genotypes and a control were tested. From these, 12 new cultivars were released and other hybrids are in the testing period. The new cultivars cover a ripening period from 10 July to 15 August. Each of them has high fruit qualities and is very productive. The paper shows the features and traits of these new cultivars named: Traian, Tudor, Auras, Danubiu, Cristal, Fortuna, Amiral, Augustin, Ceres, Histria and Euxin
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