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La Flora del Superpáramo venezolano y sus relaciones fitogeográficas a lo largo de Los Andes

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Author(s): Ricardi, M. | Gaviria, J. | Estrada, J.

Journal: Plantula
ISSN 1316-1547

Volume: 1;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 171;
Date: 1997;
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Keywords: Superparamo | Phytogeography | Venezuela | Andean Flora.

ABSTRACT
Venezuela the upper vegetation belt, upon 4.500 m a.s.l. is called Superparamo. It would be characterised fisiognomically by the disrupted vegetational cover and by the dominance of caulirosulas, cushions and herbs in turfs. It differ floristically from the superpáramos of Colombia by the presence of Coespeletia. In addition to an essay of the hypothetical genesis of the flora we offer here the floristic catalogue of the Venezuelan Superparamo. This comprise 234 taxa belonging to 119 genera, grouped into 38 families. Based on the catalogue we fulfil an analysis concerning the taxonomic composition and the phytogeographical relations along the Andean Cordillera and with Costa Rica and El Ávila. Floristically is noted the higher proportion of the more evolutionary advanced taxa and the small proportion of well diversified genera (23 with more than two species); some of these belong to a group with an ancient origin, linked to the orophyllous world flora's, and others to a group of Neotropical or Andean endemic origin. Phytogeographically the cold components (Temperate cold, Holartic and Austral antarctic) are more numerous than the warm ones (Neotropical montane, Neotropical paramuno and Pantropical). The higher affinity (denoted by the number of shared species) is with Colombia (148), lower with Ecuador (119) and Peru (102); Bolivia with only 71 shared species represents the transition between the tropical and austral floras; in the last ones the number of shared species decreased dramatically: Argentina (42), Chile (38) and Patagonia (20); the extra Andean floras of Costa Rica and El Ávila shared 27 and 17 each. A cluster analysis and a comparison of the phytogeographical elements shared along the Andean floras support the mentioned relationship schema

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