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Fundus changes in pregnancy induced hypertension

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Author(s): Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy | Sivalingam Nalliah | Sheila Rani a/pKovil George | Tham Seng Who

Journal: International Journal of Ophthalmology
ISSN 2222-3959

Volume: 5;
Issue: 6;
Start page: 694;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: pregnancy induced hypertension | retinal changes | preeclampsia | eclampsia | cortical blindness

ABSTRACT
"AIM: To determine the prevalence of retinal changes in pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and any association between the retinal changes and blood pressure, proteinuria, and severity of the disease.METHODS: All the patients admitted with diagnosis of PIH were included in this study. Age, race, gravida, gestation period, blood pressure, and proteinuria were noted from the case records. After taking history for any eye symptoms, fundus examination was done after dilating the pupils with direct ophthalmoscope in the ward itself. All the findings were noted on a data sheet, and were analyzed using SPSS programme. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients of PIH were examined. Majority (75.6%) were Malays. The mean age of patients was 30.2 years (range 21-45 years). The gestation period ranged from 25 weeks to 41 weeks; 34 (43.5%) were primi gravida. Thirty (38.4%) patients had mild preeclampsia, 46 (59%) had severe preeclampsia and 2 (2.5%) had eclampsia. Retinal changes (hypertensive retinopathy) were noted in 46 (59%) patients --- grade I in 41 (52.6%) and grade II in 5 (6.4%). Haemorrhages or exudates or retinal detachment were not seen in any patient. There was statistically significant positive association of retinal changes and blood pressure (P =0.001), proteinuria (P =0.018) and severity of the PIH (P =0.024). CONCLUSION: Retinal changes (grade I and II hypertensive retinopathy) were seen in 59% of patients with PIH and they were significantly associated with blood pressure, proteinuria and severity of the disease. Fundus examination helps in assessing the severity of PIH. "
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