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A Grid-Based Distributed Event Detection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Author(s): Ja Won Ko | Yoon-Hwa Choi

Journal: Sensors
ISSN 1424-8220

Volume: 11;
Issue: 11;
Start page: 10048;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: grid-based sensor networks | fault detection | event detection

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a grid-based distributed event detection scheme for wireless sensor networks. The network is divided into square-shaped grids of predefined grid size, where sensor nodes in each grid form a cluster with a cluster head. Event detection at each grid alone based on the readings of its member nodes is limited in event detection performance, especially for a small event region compared to the grid size. To improve the performance, each grid is further divided into 2 × 2 sub-grids of equal size. The decision on an event is made by finding a square region of 2 × 2 sub-grids, not necessarily in the same grid, that passed a predefined threshold. This process is conducted at each cluster head in a distributed manner by inter-cluster communications. Event detection is initiated when a cluster head receives an alarm from its member nodes. The cluster-head communicates with its neighboring cluster heads to exchange the number of nodes reporting an alarm. The threshold for event detection can be dynamically adjusted to reflect the number of sensor nodes in a grid and event size, if known. High event detection accuracy is achieved with a relatively low threshold without sacrificing false alarm rate by filtering most errors due to transient faults and isolating nodes with permanent faults. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve high detection accuracy, while maintaining low false alarm rate.
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