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Heat shock protein and heat shock factor 1 expression and localization in vaccinia virus infected human monocyte derived macrophages

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Author(s): Kowalczyk Aleksandra | Guzik Krzysztof | Slezak Kinga | Dziedzic Jakub | Rokita Hanna

Journal: Journal of Inflammation
ISSN 1476-9255

Volume: 2;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 12;
Date: 2005;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background Viruses remain one of the inducers of the stress response in the infected cells. Heat shock response induced by vaccinia virus (VV) infection was studied in vitro in human blood monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) as blood cells usually constitute the primary site of the infection. Methods Human blood monocytes were cultured for 12 – 14 days. The transcripts of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and two viral genes (E3L and F17R) were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the corresponding proteins measured by Western blot. Heat shock factor 1 DNA binding activities were estimated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and its subcellular localization analyzed by immunocytofluorescence. Results It appeared that infection with vaccinia virus leads to activation of the heat shock factor 1. Activation of HSF1 causes increased synthesis of an inducible form of the HSP70 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Although HSP90 mRNA was enhanced in vaccinia virus infected cells, the HSP90 protein content remained unchanged. At the time of maximum vaccinia virus gene expression, an inhibitory effect of the infection on the heat shock protein and the heat shock factor 1 was most pronounced. Moreover, at the early phase of the infection translocation of HSP70 and HSP90 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the infected cells was observed. Conclusion Preferential nuclear accumulation of HSP70, the major stress-inducible chaperone protein, suggests that VV employs this particular mechanism of cytoprotection to protect the infected cell rather than to help viral replication. The results taken together with our previuos data on monocytes or MDMs infected with VV or S. aureus strongly argue that VV employs multiple cellular antiapoptotic/cytoprotective mechanisms to prolong viability and proinflammatory activity of the cells of monocytic-macrophage lineage.
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Tango Jona
Tangokurs Rapperswil-Jona