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Heavy metal analysis and effect of the crude extract of the leaves of Brysocarpus coccineus and Ficus exasperata on some pathogenic organisms

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Author(s): Margaret Kudirat Ladipo 1 , Funmilayo Victoria Doherty 2*

Journal: International Journal of Biosciences
ISSN 2220-6655

Volume: 1;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 17;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Brysocarpus coccineus | Ficus exasperata | extracts.

ABSTRACT
The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Brysocarpus coccineus and Ficus exasperata were tested for antimicrobial activity on Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. All the organisms tested against the water and ethanolic extracts of B. coccineus were susceptible to the plant extract except for Pseudomonas aeroginosa which was resistant to the plant at various concentrations of 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 150mg/ml. The mean zones of inhibition of P. aeroginosa by water extract of B. coccineus range from 2.0mm at 50mg/ml to 5.5mm at 150mg/ml . The water and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Ficus exasperata inhibited the growth of all the tested organisms except Candida albicans which was resistant to the aqueous extract of the plant at 50,100 and 150mg/ml . The water extract of the two medicinal plants exhibited less inhibitory effect on the tested organisms than its ethanolic extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannin, alkanoid, steroid, terpenoid and cardiac glycoside in both medicinal plants without traces of phlobatanin. Saponin is present in B. coccineus but not detected in Ficus exasperata. The result of analysis for heavy metals confirmed the presence of Mn, Pb, Cr and Zn in both plants within the recommended maximum range of 5.0, 0.3, 2.3 and 9.94mg/kg respectively. The result of this finding suggests the possibility of using the plants for medicinal purposes since they possess antibacterial properties.

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