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Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

Author(s): I. I. Mile | J. I. Amonum | N. L. Sambe

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Chemistry
ISSN 2220-2625

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 87;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Heavy metals | Pollution | Ground Water | Urban | and Sub-urban

This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement– a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15) wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15) wells inYaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr), Cadmium (cd), Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu). Atomic AbsorptionSpectrometer (AAS) method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month ofSeptember, 2012. The results of the analysis show that 100% of wells in Makurdi urban area had chromium levels above WHOguide limit for drinking water, while Yaikyô, a sub-urban area of Makurdi, had only 35.5% of wells with chromium levels aboveWHO standards. Ten out of fifteen wells representing 67% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Makurdi urban area,while eleven out of fifteen wells (85%) displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Yaikyô. Twelve out of fifteen wellsrepresenting 80% displayed iron levels above WHO guide limits in Makurdi, while thirteen out of fifteen wells representing 90%,showed iron levels above WHO guide limit in Yaikyô. All wells representing 100% displayed copper levels below WHO guidelimit in both areas. High concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water are undesirable, toxic, hazardous, and affects portabilityof water. Source of metals in these wells is attributed to soil mineralogy, use of agro- chemicals on farms and other land useactivities. All land use activities capable of polluting water should be properly controlled. Water from these wells may be used forother domestic purposes other than drinking. Boiling of water from these wells should be encouraged to reduce the risk ofcontracting illness.
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