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Hematological malignancies in Chernobyl clean-up workers (1996-2010)

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Author(s): Daniil F Gluzman | Lilia M Sklyarenko | Michael P Zavelevich | Stella V Koval | Tetiana S Ivanivska

Journal: Journal of Hematological Malignancies
ISSN 1925-4024

Volume: 2;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 43;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Chernobyl clean-up workers | Leukemias | Cytochemistry | Immunophenotyping

ABSTRACT
Background: Even 25 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe, the interpretation of the findings on leukemia risk among Chernobyl clean-up workers is still a point of much controversy. Precise diagnosis of the main types of hematopoietic malignancies according to FAB classification and new WHO classification may be helpful in estimating the relative contribution of the radiation factor to the overall incidence of such pathologies. Methods: The data on 295 consecutive cases of malignant tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in Chernobyl clean-up workers diagnosed from 1996 to 2010 are given in comparison with the data of 2,697 consecutive patients other than clean-up workers of the same age group. For this study, a set of complex diagnostic techniques were used, including morphology, cytochemistry of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells, immunocytochemistry (APAAP, LSAB-AP) as well as the utilization of monoclonal antibodies to lineage specific and differentiation antigens of leukocytes. Results: All the main forms of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues were diagnosed among clean-up workers under study in 10-25 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute leukemias (ALL and AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and lymphoid neoplasms of B and T cell origin. Among 46 AML cases in clean-up workers, leukemia was preceded by MDS in seven patients. CML percentage tended to be higher in the group of patients representing clean-up workers (9.13% vs. 6.59%). B-CLL was a predominant form of hematopoietic malignancies in clean-up workers under study (26.10%). Nevertheless, the percentage of B-CLL in patients of clean-up workers group did not differ significantly from that in the non-exposed patients. The multiple myeloma percentage in our study was higher in the clean-up workers (6.46% vs. 4.00%). Conclusions: The verified diagnosis of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues according to the up-to-date WHO classification could be prerequisite for further molecular genetics and analytical epidemiology study of leukemias that may be related to the Chernobyl catastrophe.
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