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Homeobox gene Dlx-2 is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis

Author(s): Lee Su | Jeon Hyun | Kim Cho | Ju Min | Bae Hye | Park Hye | Lim Sung-Chul | Han Song | Kang Ho

Journal: Molecular Cancer
ISSN 1476-4598

Volume: 10;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 113;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Abstract Background In contrast to tumor-suppressive apoptosis and autophagic cell death, necrosis promotes tumor progression by releasing the pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and its presence in tumor patients is associated with poor prognosis. Thus, necrosis has important clinical implications in tumor development; however, its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we show that Distal-less 2 (Dlx-2), a homeobox gene of the Dlx family that is involved in embryonic development, is induced in cancer cell lines dependently of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to glucose deprivation (GD), one of the metabolic stresses occurring in solid tumors. Increased Dlx-2 expression was also detected in the inner regions, which experience metabolic stress, of human tumors and of a multicellular tumor spheroid, an in vitro model of solid tumors. Dlx-2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited metabolic stress-induced increase in propidium iodide-positive cell population and HMGB1 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, indicating the important role(s) of Dlx-2 in metabolic stress-induced necrosis. Dlx-2 shRNA appeared to exert its anti-necrotic effects by preventing metabolic stress-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS, which are responsible for triggering necrosis. Conclusions These results suggest that Dlx-2 may be involved in tumor progression via the regulation of metabolic stress-induced necrosis.
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