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Human interphase chromosomes: a review of available molecular cytogenetic technologies

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Author(s): Vorsanova Svetlana | Yurov Yuri | Iourov Ivan

Journal: Molecular Cytogenetics
ISSN 1755-8166

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2010;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Human karyotype is usually studied by classical cytogenetic (banding) techniques. To perform it, one has to obtain metaphase chromosomes of mitotic cells. This leads to the impossibility of analyzing all the cell types, to moderate cell scoring, and to the extrapolation of cytogenetic data retrieved from a couple of tens of mitotic cells to the whole organism, suggesting that all the remaining cells possess these genomes. However, this is far from being the case inasmuch as chromosome abnormalities can occur in any cell along ontogeny. Since somatic cells of eukaryotes are more likely to be in interphase, the solution of the problem concerning studying postmitotic cells and larger cell populations is interphase cytogenetics, which has become more or less applicable for specific biomedical tasks due to achievements in molecular cytogenetics (i.e. developments of fluorescence in situ hybridization -- FISH, and multicolor banding -- MCB). Numerous interphase molecular cytogenetic approaches are restricted to studying specific genomic loci (regions) being, however, useful for identification of chromosome abnormalities (aneuploidy, polyploidy, deletions, inversions, duplications, translocations). Moreover, these techniques are the unique possibility to establish biological role and patterns of nuclear genome organization at suprachromosomal level in a given cell. Here, it is to note that this issue is incompletely worked out due to technical limitations. Nonetheless, a number of state-of-the-art molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e multicolor interphase FISH or interpahase chromosome-specific MCB) allow visualization of interphase chromosomes in their integrity at molecular resolutions. Thus, regardless numerous difficulties encountered during studying human interphase chromosomes, molecular cytogenetics does provide for high-resolution single-cell analysis of genome organization, structure and behavior at all stages of cell cycle.
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