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Hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A worldwide review

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Author(s): M.H. Sayadi | R. Kargar | M.R. Doosti, et al.

Journal: Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN 2220-8860

Volume: 2;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 204;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: hybrid constructed wetlands | wastewater treatment | macrophytes | organic and inorganic pollutants

ABSTRACT
The utilization of environmentally friendly and eco-safe wastewater treatment plan is nowadays widespread. This study aimed to assess the potentiality of hybrid constructed wetlands for treating of landfill leachate, river polluted water, domestic, industrial, hospital, runoff and agricultural wastewaters in lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale with various configurations. The results revealed that the hybrid constructed wetlands are effective to remove organic matter (BOD5, COD) and suspended solid, while in terms of nutrient removal such as N and Pcomponents, the removal efficiencies were depending to system properties and operational condition. Additionally it is very useful system to remove the heavy metals and pharmaceuticals pollutants from different wastewaters. Combination of constructed wetlands enhances pollutants removal efficiency as hybrid constructed wetlands could cover the limitation of each single constructed wetlands. It could be concluded that the hybrid constructed wetlands ensure a more stable removal rate of pollutants from various wastewaters in comparison with other wastewaters treatment plans.
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