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Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

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Author(s): Banan K. Al-Baggou | Ahmed S. Naser | Fouad K. Mohammad

Journal: Human & Veterinary Medicine
ISSN 2066-7655

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 142;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Cholinesterase | organophosphate | oxidative stress | H2O2 | chicks | insecticide

ABSTRACT
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v) for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h) oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h) oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O) values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67%) and H2O2-treated (15-59%) chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66%) and H2O2-treated (15-30%) chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of the control group received tap water.Conclusion: The data suggest that H2O2 may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphate insecticidesirrespective of the extent of cholinesterase inhibition, and further studies are needed to examine the roleof oxidative stress in this potential toxicity outcome.

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