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Hygience and Nosocomial Infection surveillance in hospitals in Odessa, Ukraine

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Author(s): Rahul Barve | Suyog Kalbhor

Journal: International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health
ISSN 1840-4529

Volume: 3;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 265;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Nosocomial infections | sterile swabs | hospital hygiene | microbial growth | antibiotic resistivity

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Nosocomial infections are commonly known as Hospital acquired infection; as they can beacquired during non-infection inpatient stay. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appearwithin 48 hours or more after admission; or 30 days after discharge. These infections are life threateningand lead to complications in a patient such as ventilator associated pneumonia, urinary tract infections,gastroenteritis, abscesses etc.Aim: To assess the presence of infection causing bacteria within certain wards of hospitals situated inOdessa, Ukraine.Method: 40 sterile swabs were used to swab from various hospitals wards and operation theatres inOdessa region. Swabs were taken twice a day, in the morning and evening; and immediately sent tomicrobiological laboratory for culture.Results: Contamination was rated based on intensity of growth of microbes on culture media; with 1+being lowest and 3 + being the highest. Only 11 (27.5%) swabs demonstrated the microbial growth. Therewere not found any causal or opportunistic microorganisms on the swabs received from operation theatresand the most of hospital wards. However culture reports found five types of bacteria: Acinobacter (1+),Staph.areus (3+), Enterococcus fecalis (3+),Clostridium difficile (2+), Klebsiella (1+). These were foundon door knobs, heaters, as well as stretchers indicating poor control of hospital hygiene.Conclusion: Optimal hygienic conditions must be maintained to reduce the rate of nosocomial infectionsin hospitals. The bacterial contamination in these wards can prove to be fatal as Staph.areus can causenecrotizing pneumonia, Acinibacter iwoffi causes bacteremia or meningitis; and enterococcus fecalis cancause pseudomembranous colitis. These infections are difficult to treat because of antibiotic resistivity ofbacteria. Personal hygiene of medical staff, hand decontamination before and after contact with patient,safe injection practice, disinfection of medical equipment on regular basis; are some of the proceduresthat can improve hygienic conditions and decrease nosocomial infection rate in patients who are highlysusceptible for such infections.
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