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II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi Romanında “Türk” ve Türklük

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Author(s): Ömer SOLAK

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 21;
Start page: 419;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: Turkish type | image | etnisite | the literature of 2’Th Conditional Monarchy

ABSTRACT
Europeans are prejudiced about Turks and history or the reality of today’s Turkey due to lack of knowledge about. EuropeanCultures are full of prejudice about Turks. This situation prevents of being Turkish peoples image.After in this study the image of Turks in Europe is mentioned shortly. In our literature the Turkish style is tried to find out.Because of that, “Turk was representing which social type in II. Meşrutiyet –Conditional Monarchy- period (1908–1912) that oursocial life was formed rapidly in this period and emperorship was going to end? Why did our writers think about Turks thatpossessed an identity of Ottoman/Turks on Ottoman Turkish novels? The Changing image of Turks is followed. During thattime example novels related with our subject was studied.The Political power was considering Turkish identity increasingly in II. Meşrûtiyet. Is that so was this manner reflected thatperiod’s novels. Due to attributions about six novels was written different writer that was studied chronologically. The changingimage of Turkish and Anatolian Turkish element was determined in this way. In this article we tried to behave on the image of theTurkish type in society. We didn’t compare the dramatis persona or their circle each other.Ottoman Empire is a tolerant state in the classical period. However this is restricted tolerance that every ethnic componentperceives where they will stop. Turks are main component of the empire. But this is a important question that what is role ofTurks against the other ethnics. It can be seen that the word of “turk” means “vulgar, rude, peasant” for the Moslem/Turk rulingclass. In 19’Th century, Tanzimat create own intellectuals. And they noticed their ethnic Turkish origins; they worked on Turkishlanguage, history and culture at first time.The Political Party of Ittihat ve Terakki (Union and Progress) who came into power with the revolution of the 2’ThMeşrutiyet (Conditional Monarchy) had Turkish nationalistic politics. And they governed the Empire by using these politicsbetween 1908 - 1918. But in six novels which were published between 1908-1912, there are not positive meanings of Turkishidentity. In these novels Turk is still can be seen as a “provincial, vulgar and ignorant” by the Moslem/Turk Ottoman people whosettled in Istanbul. And this reality demonstrates that political actions had influence on literature in a little later.On the other hand, Turkish identity was evaluated in six novels which were written in II. Meşrûtiyet. These novels are Sefalet,Küçük Paşa, Müsebbip, Şıpsevdi, Nurhayat, Salon Köşelerinde.In Sefalet, A family from Istanbul consider about a “Yoruk” girl Yakut as vulgar because of the provincial origins of her. Andthey don’t accept willingly her. In Küçük Paşa was narrated Selime came from a little village in Anatolia, lives in a Paşha’s mansion.But Selime’s little son (Salih) will be refuse by the villagers of Selime later. Author Tepeyran tell the disagreement betweenAnatolia and Istanbul. Because of both Anatolia and Istanbul hadn’t known well each other. In Müsebbip was narrated BalkansWar. People from Istanbul don’t accept willingly Turkish immigrants of war. Because, they couldn’t understand how act as anation in these days. Şıpsevdi is a novel of social satire. Author Gürpınar try to tell how the nobles of Istanbul act to Anatoliansand their culture in this novel. In Nurhayat, Ziya as child from Anatolia was ridicule by his friends in the school in Istanbul. Theyconsider comical his behaviors. In the novel of Salon Köşelerinde, Şekip was a refined person of the high society. And he fell in love.Lydia was an English merchant’s girl. In order to call her attention, Şekip tried to be as Turkish nationalist. And he tried to showTurkish culture and civilization. In this way, Şekip found out his Turkish identity.Briefly, in this period Moslem/Ottoman/Istanbulian/Turk people count other components of the empire as being alien or“other” –especially Turks living the parts of a country outside its big cities- . This being an alien or foreigner was clear in thisperiod. Thus we don’t explain this situation as tension between center and province.Near the time of Mesrutiyet, being a Turk would come to mean positive associations. And this affects the modern TurkishRepublic’s cultural an identical codes.In spite of political tendency of the period, the novels of second Mesrutiyet period don’t stress on Turk sufficiently. And theydon’t give these novels priority. Also it is clear that the Turkist political policy of that period of times wasn’t agreed with bynovelist of the same time. Assuming the literature follows the political tendency from behind, this situation will be explained alittle. When the empire collapsed tragically and in a very short time; a new understanding came into power. And according tothem, being a Turk is not only wouldn’t be made fit into the Istanbul but also should be think with the deep history and widegeography of the Turks. In addition to this, they got Anatolian Turkish identity established in the center of this understanding.In respect of Tanzimat, Edebiyat-Cedide and second Mesrutiyet’s novels, a dominant character of “native citizen” wasn’t tobe only “Turk”. Furthermore this definition of native citizen was far away from definition of today’s Turkishness.Moslem/ Ottoman/Istanbulian/Turk counts all of other components which aren’t similar to their cultural characteristics(outfits, taste of entertainment, refined Ottoman language) as an alien. And being alien is clear as much as it can’t be explained
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