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Immunization Coverage in Selected Communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

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Author(s): Akinwumi Fajola | Edet Edet | Angela Oyo-Ita | Babatunde Fakunle

Journal: Advances in Molecular Imaging
ISSN 2161-6728

Volume: 02;
Issue: 01;
Start page: 21;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Immunization | Childhood | Predictors of Completion | Quality

ABSTRACT
Background: The Expanded Program on Immunization was launched in Nigeria in 1980 but the target for immunization coverage has been elusive. As part of its social responsibilities the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) supported immunization activities in the Niger Delta region of the country. In this study a cross sectional study was carried out to estimate the coverage of BCG, OPV, DPT and measles vaccines and, to determine the predictors of full immunization coverage among children aged 12 to 23 months in selected SPDC supported communities in the Niger Delta. Using modified cluster randomization, 2432 children were included in the study. Results: Of 2432 children studied 1585 (65.2%; 95% CI: 61.9% to 68.5%) were fully immunized with the four vaccines; 2323 (95.5%) had received at least one dose of a vaccine (card and history). About one third (36.6%) of the children aged 12 to 23 months with immunization card were fully immunized by their first birthday. The proportion of children fully immunized with valid doses of vaccines by one year was 19.9% (485 of 2432) based on card only. One hundred and nine (4.5%) had never received immunization. Major reason for failure to be immunized was fear of side reactions. Main predictor for full immunization was availability of a health facility in the community. Discussion: The coverage of immunization was high in the study area; but the proportion of valid doses administered was low. Training of health workers and strategic behavioral communication to dispel fears of side reactions are recommended.
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