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Immunostimulants in teleost fish: probiotics, β-glucans and lipopolysaccharides

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Author(s): Mónica A. Vásquez - Piñeros | Iang S. Rondón - Barragan | Pedro R. Eslava- Mocha

Journal: Orinoquia
ISSN 0121-3709

Volume: 16;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 46;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: aquiculture | disease | fish | health/sanitation | immune system

ABSTRACT
AbstractImmunostimulants mainly consist of microorganisms’ structural elements whose principle is based on stimulating the innate immune system, leading to an improvement in animals’ sanitary state and increased resistance to pathogens. β-glucans and lipopolysaccharides are some of the most used immunostimulants in the fish industry, including beneficial bacteria called probiotics. Studies on fish have been focused on the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cellular and humoral responses, modulating gene transcription and the effects of resistance regarding pathogens of interest, usually having positive effects on the fishes’ immunological state and resistance to disease. The proposed review was aimed at investigating the mechanisms of action of some of the most used immunostimulants, conceptualising their use in aquiculture and discussing recent work on the topic thereby forming the basis for proposing pertinent, feasible investigations for tackling some problems in the fish-farming health/sanitation area.
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