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Immunosuppressive properties of Pluchea lanceolata leaves

Author(s): Bhagwat D | Kharya M | Bani Sarang | Kaul Anpurna | Kour Kiranjeet | Chauhan Prashant | Suri K | Satti N

Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
ISSN 0253-7613

Volume: 42;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 21;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: CD 4 T-helper cells | CD 8 T-cytotoxic cells | cell-mediated immune response | Humoral antibody titer | Pluchea lanceolata.

Objective : To investigate the immunosuppressive potential of Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL) and its bioactive chloroform fraction (PLC). Materials and Methods : Preliminary screening of the Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL) was carried out with basic models of immunomodulation, such as, the humoral antibody response (hemagglutination antibody titers), cell-mediated immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity), skin allograft rejection test, in vitro (C. albicans method), and in vivo phagocytosis (carbon clearance test). The extract was then fractionated with chloroform, n-butanol, and water to receive the respective fractions by partitioning. These fractions were employed for flow cytometry to study the T-cell specific immunosuppressive potential of these fractions. Results : Oral administration of PL at doses of 50 to 800 mg/kg in mice, with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as an antigen, inhibited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of the circulating antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitiviy reaction results, respectively, and the immune suppression was statistically significant (P < 0.01) in Balb/C mice. PL also decreased the process of phagocytosis both in vitro (31.23%) and ex vivo (32.81%) and delayed the graft rejection time (30.76%). To study the T-cell-specific activities, chloroform, n-butanol, and water fractions from P. lanceolata were tested for T-cell specific immunosuppressive evaluation, wherein only the chloroform fraction (PLC) showed significant (P < 0.01) suppression of CD8+ / CD4+ T-cell surface markers and intracellular Th1 (IL-2 and IFN- Y ) cytokines at 25 - 200 mg/kg p.o. doses. PLC, however, did not show significant suppression of the Th2 (IL-4) cytokine. Conclusion : The findings from the present investigation reveal that P. lanceolata causes immunosuppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines.
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