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Impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder cancer

Author(s): Gupta Parag | Jain Manoj | Kapoor Rakesh | Muruganandham K | Srivastava Aneesh | Mandhani Anil

Journal: Indian Journal of Urology
ISSN 0970-1591

Volume: 25;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 207;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Age | bladder cancer | gender | smoking | transitional cell carcinoma

Purpose: To determine the impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of histologically confirmed bladder cancer in India. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, records of patients with bladder cancer were evaluated for age and gender at presentation, clinical symptoms, cystoscopic finding, history of smoking, and histopathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients were identified from the computer-based hospital information system and the case files of patients. Results: A total of 97% of the patients presented with painless hematuria. The mean age was 60.2 ± 4.4 years old (range: 18-90 years old) and the male to female ratio was 8.6:1. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was the most common histological variety, which was present in 97.71% (470 of 481) of the patients. A total of 26% of the patients had muscle invasive disease at the time of presentation. However, 34.5% (166 of 481) of the patients did not show any evidence of detrusor muscle in their biopsy specimen. In patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder carcinoma, 55% had p Ta while 45% had p T1. Overall, 44.7% (215 of 481) of the patients had low-grade disease. Among patients younger than 60 years old, low-grade (51.0% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.006) and low-stage (77.1% vs. 70.8%; P = 0.119) disease were more prevalent than in patients older than 60 years old. The incidence of smoking was much higher among males compared with females (74% vs. 22%). Conclusion: TCC is the predominant cancer, with significant male preponderance among Indian patients. Younger-aged patients have low-grade disease. Hematuria is the most common presentation and greater awareness is needed not to overlook bladder cancer.

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