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经济结构调整对劳动力市场需求的影响 The Impact of the Economic Restructuring on the Demand of the Labor Market

Author(s): 郭锦川 | 李琼

Journal: Modern Management
ISSN 2160-7311

Volume: 01;
Issue: 04;
Start page: 269;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: 结构调整 | 产业结构 | 劳动力需求 | Economic Restructuring | Industrial Structure | Labor Demand

经济结构调整和劳动力流动壁垒动态地改变了劳动力市场的需求和供给,由此成为分析就业最重要的市场约束条件。由于各种内因和外因作用,高耗能、高投入的增长方式难以为继,中国经济结构调整已迫在眉睫。本文将我国所进行的非均衡结构转变做了归纳,讨论了产业结构变化、外贸变化、城市化、收入增长变化和人口结构变化对劳动力市场需求的影响。具体而言,中国三次产业结构正向“三、二、一”转变,农业人口中仍有大量劳动力需要向其他产业转移,低端制造业由于外贸萎缩与生产成本上升,处境艰难,第三产业对劳动力需求旺盛。城市化进程推动了城市建设、公共服务、基础设施以及金融服务、高端制造、软件设计等行业发展,对劳动力的需求也将相应变化。收入水平提高,必然会导致相应的消费结构变化,家电、通讯消费升级,对该行业的劳动力需求也同步增长。老年人口比例逐步增加,会对老年服务行业的相关企业的市场需求产生积极影响,进而影响其劳动力需求。随着经济结构调整步伐加快,劳动力也需不断提高其素质和技能水平,以满足市场需求。The economic restructuring and barriers to labor mobility are the most important market constrains when it comes to analyzing employment for they dynamically change the demand and supply of the labor market. Due to various internal and external factors the economic growth, featuring high energy consumption and high investment, is becoming unsustainable, so the economic restructuring is pressing. This article summarized the non-equilibrium structural changes in China and discussed the impact on the labor demand of the changes in industrial structures, foreign trade, urbanization, income growth and demography. To be specific, as the structure of three industries is moving forward to “three, two, one”, a large number of surplus labor in agriculture needs to be transferred. The low-end manufacturing is struggling because of shrinking foreign trade and soaring production cost, but the service industry has a large demand for labor force. Urbanization promotes city building, public services, infrastructure construction, financial services, high-end manufacturing, software design and other industries. The income growth inevitably leads to corresponding changes in consumption structure. For example, the consumption of household appliances and communication devices upgrade. The demand for the elderly services will also develop with the aging of the population. All these changes will exert impacts on the demands for the related labor markets. As the economic restructuring accelerates, laborers also need to improve their quality and skills so as to meet the requirements of the labor markets.
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