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Increase in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia, 1994-2008 Incremento de la resistencia a eritromicina de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Colombia, 1994-2008

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Author(s): Marylin Hidalgo | Claudia Santos | Carolina Duarte | Elizabeth Castañeda | Clara Inés Agudelo

Journal: Biomédica
ISSN 0120-4157

Volume: 31;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 124;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae | eritromicina | resistencia a medicamentos | vigilancia | genotipo | fenotipo

ABSTRACT
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commonly implicated agent in invasive disease. For infections of S. pneumoniae resistant to β-lactam, macrolides are an alternative treatment. However, resistance to macrolides has increased worldwide as well.Objective. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin was determined for S. pneumoniae over a 15-year surveillance period, and the resistant isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically.Materials and methods. Demographic data of the patients, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes were analyzed for 3,241 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered between 1994 and 2008. The phenotypes were determined by the double-disc technique and genotypes by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). Isolates were recovered from invasive diseases and were provided by national public health laboratories.Results. Of the 3,241 isolates, 136 were resistant to erythromycin. In the 12-year period between 1994-1996 and 2006-2008, resistance in each 2-year sampling had increased from 2.4% to 6.9% in children under 6 years and from 3.3% to 5.7% in adults.The most common serotypes were 6B (36.8%), 14 (16.9%) and 6A (17.6%). Constitutive phenotype cMLSB was determined in 87 isolates; 82 of these expressed the ermB gene. Phenotype M was determined in 46 isolates; 45 had the mefA gene. An additional three isolates expressed the inducible phenotype (iMLSB), and one expressed the ermB gene. By PFGE, 50 of the isolates were found to be related to international clones--58% were Spain6B-ST90, 26% Spain9V-ST156, 8% Colombia23F-ST338 and 8% Spain23F-ST81.Conclusion. The increase in erythromycin resistance was primarily related to the mechanism of ribosomal methylation. More than half the cases were congeneric with the clone Spain6B-ST90 that has been circulating in Colombia since 1994.Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae es un agente comúnmente implicado en enfermedad invasora. Los macrólidos constituyen un tratamiento alternativo para las infecciones por S. pneumoniae resistente a los β-lactámicos. Sin embargo, la resistencia a macrólidos se ha incrementado a nivel mundial.Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de la resistencia a la eritromicina de S. pneumoniae en 15 años de vigilancia y caracterizar fenotípica y genotípicamente los aislamientos resistentes.Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron los datos demográficos de los pacientes, la sensibilidad antimicrobiana y los serotipos de los aislamientos resistentes a la eritromicina, recuperados entre 1994 y 2008. Se determinaron los fenotipos por la técnica del doble disco, y los genotipos, por PCR y PFGE. Todos los aislamientos se recuperaron de enfermedad invasiva y fueron proporcionados por los laboratorios nacionales de salud pública.Resultados. Se recuperaron 3.241 aislamientos invasores; 136 (4,2 %) presentaron resistencia a la eritromicina. La resistencia a la eritromicina se incrementó entre 1994-1996 y 2006-2008, de 2,4 % a 6,9 % en menores de 6 años y, de 3,3 % a 5,7 %, en adultos.Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron 6B (36,8 %), 14 (16,9 %) y 6A (17,6 %). El fenotipo constitutivo cMLSB se determinó en 87 aislamientos; 82 tenían el gen ermB. El fenotipo M se determinó en 46; 45 tenían el gen mefA, tres aislamientos expresaron fenotipo inducible (iMLSB) y un aislamiento presentaba el gen ermB. Por PFGE, se determinó que 50 aislamientos estaban relacionados con clones internacionales, de los cuales, 58 % eran España6B ST90, 26 % eran España9V ST156, 8 % eran Colombia23F-ST338 y 8 % eran España23F-ST81.Conclusiones. Se observó incremento en la resistencia a la eritromicina, relacionada principalmente con el mecanismo de metilación ribosómica y con el clon España6B-ST90 que ha circulado en Colombia desde 1994.
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