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Influence of urban sludge used as fertilizer on Idared apple behavior

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Author(s): Dorin Sumedrea | Mihail Iancu | Emil Chitu

Journal: Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti, Romania
ISSN 1584-2231

Volume: XXIV;
Start page: 178;
Date: 2008;
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Keywords: pollution | planting substrate | manure | fluorescence | M9 rootstock

ABSTRACT
The ever increasing town – planning worldwide and in our country as well has had as a result the increasedwaste water and sludge amounts resulted from their clearings in special plants. The utilization of this sludgeas fertilizer in agriculture is a practical solution in the environmental protection against the pollution causedby it. The studies undertaken in this sense were particularly focused on the cereals and less on the fruitspecies crops. To emphasize the effects of urban sludge application on Idared apple cultivar grafted on M9rootstock, an experiment at RIFG was organized in 2006. The following experimental scheme with plantingpots was used: A factor = depth of planting substrate for applying the organic matter on it, with twograduations: a1 = 0 - 30 cm; a2 = 0 - 60 cm; B factor = type and amount of organic matter applied (g/lsubstrate), with the following graduations: b1 = 0; b2 = manure 340 g/l; b3 = sludge 170 g/l; b4 = sludge 340g/l; b5 = sludge 510 g/l; b6 = sludge 680 g/l. Therefore, it was a bi-factorial experiment like 2 x 6, designed assubdivided blocks, with 4 replications. Each planting pot consists in a concrete cylinder of 1 m height anddiameter, and 0.785 m3 volume. To sum up the effects of the experimental factors on the trees response, thefollowing readings were recorded: dynamics of trunk diameter growth, length growth of annual shoots,number of flower buds/tree and fluorescence. In the first year after planting, the depth of the plantingsubstrate did not significantly influence the annual increase in the trunk cross sectional area (TCSA).Nevertheless, in the case of a1 = (0 – 30 cm) substrate, the total annual shoot growth per tree wassignificantly higher by 113% versus a2 = (0 – 60 cm). Manure application as 340 g/l substrate versus theunfertilized control influenced by far the annual increase in TCSA (167%) and of total annual growth(182%). Urban sludge application (170-680 g/l substrate) versus the unfertilized substrate led to asignificantly higher increase (140-155%) in TCSA. The total annual shoot growth showed also higher values(141-184%) in the case of more than 340 g/l sludge application (b4 – b6) versus the unfertilized control. Thesame rate of manure (340 g/l) determined a significant increase in total annual growths by 129% vs. sludgeapplication, but did not significantly influence the TCSA.
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