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Influenza infection and risk of acute pulmonary embolism

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Author(s): van Wissen Matthijs | Keller Tymen | Ronkes Brechje | Gerdes Victor | Zaaijer Hans | van Gorp Eric | Brandjes Dees | Levi Marcel | Büller Harry

Journal: Thrombosis Journal
ISSN 1477-9560

Volume: 5;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 16;
Date: 2007;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background Influenza infections have been associated with procoagulant changes. Whether influenza infections lead to an increased risk of pulmonary embolism remains to be established. Methods We conducted a nested case control study in a large cohort of patients with a clinical suspicion of having pulmonary embolism. Blood samples were collected to investigate the presence of influenza A and B by complement fixation assay (CFA). We compared case patients, in whom pulmonary embolism was proven (n = 102), to controls, in whom pulmonary embolism was excluded (n = 395). Furthermore, we compared symptoms of influenza-like illness in both patient groups 2 weeks prior to inclusion in the study, using the influenza-like illness (ILI) score, which is based on a questionnaire. We calculated the risk of pulmonary embolism associated with influenza infection. Results The percentage of patients with influenza A was higher in the control group compared to the case group (4.3% versus 1.0%, respectively, odds ratio 0.22; 95% CI: 0.03–1.72). Influenza B was not detectable in any of the cases and was found in 3 of the 395 controls (0.8%). The ILI score was positive in 24% of the cases and 25% in the control persons (odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI: 0.67–2.01). We did not observe an association between the ILI score and proven influenza infection. Conclusion In this clinical study, influenza infection was not associated with an increased risk of acute pulmonary embolism. The ILI score is non-specific in this clinical setting.
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Tango Jona
Tangokurs Rapperswil-Jona