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Insulin secretion: mechanisms of regulation

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Author(s): Radosavljević Tatjana | Todorović Vera N. | Šikić Branka

Journal: Medicinski Pregled
ISSN 0025-8105

Volume: 57;
Issue: 5-6;
Start page: 249;
Date: 2004;
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Keywords: insulin | secretion | ion channels | somatostatin | glucagon | peptides

ABSTRACT
Regulation of insulin secretion Beta cells are unique endocrine cells. They respond positively, in terms of insulin secretion, not only to changes in the extracellular glucose concentration, but also to activators of the phospholipase C (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine), and to activators of adenylate cyclase (glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, or gastric inhibitory polypeptide). Major messengers which mediate glucose action for insulin release are Ca2%, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Major pathways of insulin release stimulation There are four major pathways involved in stimulation of insulin release. The first pathway is KATP channel-dependent pathway in which increased blood glucose concentrations and increased b-cell metabolism result in a change in intracellular ATP/ADP ratio. This is a contributory factor in closure of ATP-dependent K% channels, depolarization of b-cell membrane, in increased voltage-dependent L-type Ca2%channel activity. Increased Ca2% influx results in increased intracellular Ca2% and stimulated insulin release. KATP channel-independent pathway augments Ca2%-stimulated insulun secretion of KATP channel-dependent pathway. Major potentiation of release results from hormonal and peptidergic activation of receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase activity is stimulated by hormones such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and so on. These hormones, acting via G protein, stimulate adenylyl cyclase, thus causing a rise in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Increased activity of PKA results in potentiation of insulin secretion.
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