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Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

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Author(s): Vasilis Kanakoudis | Stavroula Tsitsifli | Anastasia Papadopoulou

Journal: Water
ISSN 2073-4441

Volume: 4;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 45;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: carbon footprint | water footprint | virtual water | full water cost | water losses

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW) index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.
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