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Interaction between visiting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) and flowers of Ludwigia elegans (Camb.) hara (Onagraceae) during the year in two different areas in São Paulo, Brazil

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Author(s): Gimenes M.

Journal: Brazilian Journal of Biology
ISSN 1519-6984

Volume: 63;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 617;
Date: 2003;
Original page

Keywords: photoperiod | biological rhythm | Tetraglossula | Pseudagapostemon | Rhophitulus

ABSTRACT
This study was designed to characterize the interactions between Ludwigia elegans flowers and visiting bees during two years in two areas 200 km apart, at the same latitude (approximately 22º48'S) but at different altitudes (Alumínio, 600 m, and Campos do Jordão, 1500 m), in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. As these flowers open simultaneously in the morning and lose their petals by sunset, interaction with bees occurs only during the photophase. Flowers of L. elegans were mainly visited by bees, the most frequent species being: Tetraglossula anthracina (Michener, 1989) (Colletidae), Rhophitulus sp. (Andrenidae), and Pseudagapostemon spp. (Halictidae), all considered specialized bees for collecting pollen and nectar from these flowers, as well as the generalist bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Apidae). The specialist bees were temporally adjusted to the opening schedule of the flower, which occurs primarily in the morning, but shows a circannual variation. T. anthracina appears in both study areas, but only between December and April. The annual activity patterns of these specialist bees are synchronized to the phenology of L. elegans. Photoperiod and temperature cycles are suggested as the main synchronizers of both bees and plants.
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