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Interactive Kalman Filtering for Differential and Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying Modulation with Application in Bluetooth

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Author(s): Mahdi N. Ali | Mohamed A. Zohdy

Journal: Journal of Signal and Information Processing
ISSN 2159-4465

Volume: 03;
Issue: 01;
Start page: 63;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Interactive Kalman Filtering | Unscented Kalman Filter | Extended Kalman Filter | Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying | Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying | Bluetooth

ABSTRACT
Some applications are constrained only to implement low cost receivers. In this case, designers are required to use less complex and non-expensive modulation techniques. Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) and Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) can be non-coherently demodulated with simple algorithms. However, these types of demodulation are not robust and suffer from poor performance. This paper proposes a new method to enhance the performance of DQPSK and GFSK using Interactive Kalman Filtering (IKF) technique, in which a one Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and two Kalman Filters (KF) are coupled to optimize the demodulated signals. This method consists of simple but very effective algorithms without adding complexity to the demodulators comparing to other very complex methods. UKF is used in this method due to its superiority in approximating and estimating nonlinear systems and its ability to handle non-Gaussian noise environments. The proposed method has been validated by creating a MATLAB/SIMULINK Bluetooth system model, in which the IKF is integrated into the receiver, which implement both DQPSK and GFSK, and run simulation in Gaussian and Non-Gaussian noise environments. Results have shown the effectiveness of this method in optimizing the received signals, and that the UKF outperforms the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF).
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