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Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

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Author(s): Byeong Ha Lee | Young Ho Kim | Kwan Seob Park | Joo Beom Eom | Myoung Jin Kim | Byung Sup Rho | Hae Young Choi

Journal: Sensors
ISSN 1424-8220

Volume: 12;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 2467;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: fiber-optic sensors | fiber interferometers | Fabry-Perot interferometers | Mach-Zehnder interferometers | Michelson interferometers | Sagnac interferometers

ABSTRACT
Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.
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