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Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

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Author(s): Lucia M. J. Carvalho | Mariana M. Corrêa | Elenilda J. Pereira | Marília R. Nutti | José L. V. Carvalho | Ediane M. G. Ribeiro | Sidinéa C. Freitas

Journal: Food & Nutrition Research
ISSN 1654-6628

Volume: 56;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: leguminosae | mineral deficiencies | cooking methods | micronutrients | food analysis | food composition | common beans

ABSTRACT
Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.
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