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Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

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Author(s): T JN Okonkwo | P O Osadebe

Journal: International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products
ISSN 1940-6223

Volume: 6;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 28;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv | Stringy seed pulp | Flavonoids | Ascorbic acid | Antioxidants | Pro-oxidative disorders

ABSTRACT
Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP) was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water successively. The acetone extract was fractionated serially into chloroform, ethylacetate and acetone to obtain the respective solvent fractions. LOSSP/CF-1 was obtained by re-crystallization of the chloroform fraction. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts and fractions was performed using standard methods. The chemical structure of LOSSP/CF-1 was elucidated by ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. While the flavonoid concentrate (FC) and LOSSP/CF-1 tested positive to 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical and KMnO4 assays, indicating strong antioxidant properties. In addition, LOSSP/CF-1 expressed a 50% radical inhibition concentration (IC50) of 238.24 ± 3.12 µg/ml against gallic acid (37.63 ± 0.47 µg/ml). Ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of LOSSP/CF-1 indicated it to be ascorbic acid. This is novel for the herb, and the first ever compound isolated and characterized from L. owariensis. Flavonoids and LOSSP/CF-1 (ascorbic acid) are potent bioactive principles of L. owariensis, acting via antioxidant mechanism. Thus the herb is recommended for use as an adjuvant in the management of diseases involving pro-oxidative state.   Industrial relevance. Pro-oxidative state-induced disorders like hepatitis, cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, cancer, et c., have been identified as major course of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Medicinal plants have successfully improved the oxidative balance of the bio-system, and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. Various anatomical segments of Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv possessed anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects attributed to the antioxidant constituents of the herb; and have been used in ethno medicinal management of some infective conditions associated with pro-oxidation. The present study has validated the antioxidant effect of L. owariensis. The observed anti-oxidative effect of the herb will be much desirable in the management of human oxidative balance, to mitigate the deleterious effects of pro-oxidative diseases. The present work isolated and characterized important active pharmaceutical ingredients from Landolphia owariensis stringy seed pulp with strong anti-oxidant effect; which can be developed into better therapeutic molecules targeted towards some specific pro-oxidative disorders.Keywords. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv; Stringy seed pulp; Flavonoids, Ascorbic acid; Antioxidants; Pro-oxidative disorders

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