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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) : it's epidemiology, disease and vector control with special reference to immune surveillance and safety measures : A review

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Author(s): Ravi Kant Upadhyay*, Shoeb Ahmad

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN 0974-6943

Volume: 4;
Issue: 8;
Start page: 2490;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Japanese Encephalitis | epidemics | vaccines | viral pathogenesis | JE epidemiology

ABSTRACT
Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemics is one of the greatest threats to pediatric population especially in Southeast Asia caused by RNA flavivirus. JE is a dreadful zoonotic disease caused by JEV transmitted by mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus and results very high mortality in infants and children below age of 14years. Those who survive get permanent neurological deformities like brain dysfunctions, memory loss, flaccid paralysis and poliomyelitis. For prophylaxis vaccines are only available remedy and no other effective antiviral therapy exists to treat JEV infection. Unfortunately, due to lack of immunodiagnostic tools for JEV detection and unavailability of timely treatment very high mortality was observed in infants almost every year. For an effective control of JE, an efficient and cheaper vaccine is required that may be easily affordable to rural poor, and all vaccine-related injuries must be clinically investigated by team of experts for authentic analysis of viral pathogenesis. No doubt vaccination shows clinical benefits and help to maintain public health by reducing deaths anddisability care but it also impose post vaccination adverse events. Therefore, for obtaining more favorable results post vaccination surveillance is highly essential and there is a special need for development of more sophisticated diagnostic tools for detection of JEV in rural pockets and as well as establishment of an immunization program at international level. Besides this, for safe immunization public awareness is highly essential, it may not only provide help formaking effective health policies for care of JE patients but it may also assist in decision making for policy makers. Besides prophylactic and therapeutic treatments JE infection can be prohibited by vector control and host immunization. It is also widely related to environmental management mainly related to ecological education, economy and sanitation. For successful JE control long term vaccination and vector control are highly essential.
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