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Karyological Studies on Some Wild Species of Family Cruciferae in Egypt

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Author(s): Magda Ibrahim Soliman

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
ISSN 1028-8880

Volume: 5;
Issue: 9;
Start page: 943;
Date: 2002;
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Keywords: Cruciferae | chromosome number | karyotype | chromosomal aberrations | genetic resources

ABSTRACT
The present study on some wild taxa belonging to family Cruciferae has been carried out from the cyctological view-point. The somatic chromosome counts for Matthiola arabica 2n = 14, M. livida 2n = 10 and 12, Erucaria hispanica 2n = 14 and Eremobium aegyptiacum 2n = 18 and 20 were the new reports. Karyotype analyses showed that the examined taxa had no identical chromosome sets. Cakile maritima (2n = 18) collected from Rashid had 6 M, 6 nm and 6 nsm(-) chromosomes, from Baltim 2 M, 8 nm, 6 nsm(-) and 2 nsm(+) chromosomes meanwhile specimens from Alexandria had 2 M, 10 nm and 6 nsm(-) chromosomes. Erucaria hispanica (2n = 14) had 2 M, 4 nm, 6 nsm(-) and 2 nsm(+) chromosomes and (2n = 16) had 2 M, 6 nm, 6 nsm(-) and 2 nsm(+) chromosomes. Matthiola arabica (2n = 14) had 2 M, 4 nm, 4 nsm(-), 2 nsm(+) and 2nst(+) chromosomes. M. livida (2n = 10) had 2 M, 4 nm and 4 nsm(-) chromosomes and 2n = 12 had 2 M, 4 nm and 6 nsm(-) chromosomes. Finally M. longipetala (2n = 12) had 2 M, 6 nm, 2 nsm(-) and 2 nsm(+) chromosomes. That the total complement length was the highest in Matthiola longipetala (15.66 μm) and the lowest in Erucaria hispanica, 2n = 14 (8.54 μm). The arm ratio ranged from 4.25 to 1.00. All of them had symmetrical karyotype except in Matthiola arabica where nst(-) chromosomes appeared and consequently showed affinity to asymmetry. With regard to the growth habit of the genus Matthiola, it is also evident that the perennial species had low TF% and asymmetric karyotype. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in mitotic division. Only Matthiola species in this study showed the mitotic chromatin bridge, irregular distribution of chromosomes, laggards and stickiness. The present work may throw light on possibility of using the studied taxa as natural genetic resources which are broadly used today in the field of conservation biology.
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